The LHC is really an enormous particle accelerator which constitutes the most powerful machine ever built by physicians. This accelerator will make possible collisions of high energy protons at almost the speed of light. The main goal of this high energy collisions is to discover the hypothetical Higgs boson, which is predicted by the Standard Model of elemental particles.
These are the four main experiments in the LHC:
- CMS (the Compact Muon Solenoid) and Atlas are the LHC's general purpose detectors to investigate a wide range of physics, including the search for the elusive Higgs boson (which gives other particles their mass), extra dimensions, and particles that could make up dark matter.
- Higgs boson: Luckily it was discovered in 2012 and this event was the first success of LHC. However we don't know yet whether the Higgs boson is an elemental particle or it has some internal structure.
- Dark Matter: In LHC scientists are searching for heavy particles candidates for dark matter, such as WIMPs (Weak Interaction Massive Particles).
- Hierarchy Problem: Scientists will try to understand why the gravitational force is so weak or why the mass Planck is so large.
- Supersymetry: LHC could be able to discover massive superparters of the particles included in the Standard Model.
- Extra dimensions: if the massive particles predicted by some extra dimension models such as the Randall-Sundrum were detected, then extra dimensions would be confirmed.
- Microscopic Black Holes: High energy collisions could generate microscopic black holes which would evaporate almost instantly. These black holes would supply more information about Hawking radiation.
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