Like the Large Hadron Collider, Aerospace technology is an example of how powerful human mind is and how human intelligence is able to design an amazing and wonderful technology (most of photos obtained from www.nasa.gov)
Next I would like to summarize the evolution of Aerospace technology following this guide:
- First Artificial Satellite into Earth's Orbit
- First Human to Fly in Space
- Rocket Evolution
- Saturn V and Apollo 11 Lunar Landing Mission
- Skylab: The First Spacial Station
- First Launch of the Space Shuttle
- MIR: The First Example of Cooperation between USA and Russia
- Hubble Space Telescope
- Space Shuttle
- Soyuz: An Alternative to the Space Shuttle
- The International Space Station
- The Future: NASA's Constellation Program
Sergey Korolev, founder of the Soviet space program, in July 1954 with a dog that just returned to Earth after a lob to an altitude of 100 kilometers on an R-1D scientific rocket
Traveling aboard Sputnik 2, rising temperatures due to thermal control problems killed Layka on the fourth day of the mission (Image from the files of Asif Siddiqi. Image and caption from Challenge to Apollo: The Soviet Union and the Space Race, 1945- 1974 (NASA SP-2000-4408) by Asif A. Siddiqi)
This shows the evolution of Soviet space launch vehicles in the early years. From the left are the R-7 ICBM (Intercontinental Ballistic Missile), the Sputnik launcher, the Vostok launcher, and the Soyuz launcher Image under copyright by Peter Gorin. Image and caption from Challenge to Apollo: The Soviet Union and the Space Race, 1945- 1974 (NASA SP-2000-4408) by Asif A. Siddiqi
First Artificial Satellite into Earth's Orbit
1. Test the method of placing an artificial satellite into Earth orbit.
2. Provide information on the density of the atmosphere by calculating its lifetime in orbit.
3. Test radio and optical methods of orbital tracking.
4. Determine the effects of radio wave propagation though the atmosphere
5. Check principles of pressurization used on the satellites.
On October 4, 1957, Sputnik 1 successfully launched and entered Earth's orbit. Sputnik shocked the world, giving the USSR the distinction of putting the first human-made object into space and putting the United States a step behind in the space race (Image from the files of Asif Siddiqi. Image and caption from Challenge to Apollo: The Soviet Union and the Space Race, 1945- 1974 (NASA SP-2000-4408) by Asif A. Siddiqi).
First Human to Fly in Space
A pensive Yuri Gagarin is in the bus on the way to the launch pad on the morning of April 12, 1961
As the first human to fly in space, he successfully completed one orbit around the Earth. Image from the files of Asif Siddiqi. Image and caption from Challenge to Apollo: The Soviet Union and the Space Race, 1945- 1974 (NASA SP-2000-4408) by Asif A. Siddiqi
The Redstone, Jupiter-C and Mercury Redstone. This is a comparison illustration of the Redstone, Jupiter-C, and Mercury Redstone launch vehicles
NASA introduced the Project Mercury astronauts to the world on April 9, 1959, only six months after the agency was established. Known as the Mercury Seven or Original Seven, they are (front row, left to right) Walter M. "Wally" Schirra Jr., Donald K. "Deke" Slayton, John H. Glenn Jr., M. Scott Carpenter, (back row) Alan B. Shepard Jr., Virgil I. "Gus" Grissom and L. Gordon Cooper, Jr.
The launch of the Mercury-Redstone (MR-3), Freedom 7. MR-3 placed the first American astronaut, Alan Shepard, in suborbit on May 5, 1961
Saturn V and Apollo 11 Lunar Landing Mission
The Apollo 11 Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle", in a landing configuration is photographed in lunar orbit from the Command and Service Modules "Columbia". Inside the LM were Commander, Neil A. Armstrong, and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. "Buzz" Aldrin Jr. The long "rod-like" protrusions under the landing pods are lunar surface sensing probes. Upon contact with the lunar surface, the probes send a signal to the crew to shut down the descent engine
View of the Lunar Module LM ascent stage. The Earth is visible above the LM. Image taken at Tranquility Base during the Apollo 11 Mission
Apollo 11 Astronaut Aldrin Next to Lunar Module (LM)
Astronaut Buzz Aldrin, lunar module pilot, walks on the surface of the Moon near the leg of the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" during the Apollo 11 exravehicular activity (EVA). While astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the Moon, astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit
One of the first steps taken on the Moon, this is an image of Buzz Aldrin's bootprint from the Apollo 11 mission. Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin walked on the Moon on July 20, 1969
Skylab: The First Spacial Station
In 1968, the Marshall Space Flight Center proposed an alternative to the wet workshop concept of refurbishing a space station in orbit. Instead, a fully equipped dry workshop could be launched as a complete unit ready for occupancy. Skylab became the free world's first space station.
Launched in May 1973, the Skylab space station was occupied in succession by three teams of three crewmembers. These crews spent 28, 59, and 84 days respectively, orbiting the Earth and performing nearly 300 experiments. This view of Skylab in orbit was taken by the Skylab 4 (the last Skylab mission) crew 1974-02-01.
STS-1 Launch. The April 12 launch at Pad 39A of STS-1, just seconds past 7 a.m., carries astronauts John Young and Robert Crippen into an Earth orbital mission scheduled to last for 54 hours, ending with unpowered landing at Edwards Air Force Base in California
The Priroda module is shown extending over the port wing of the Orbiter with its solar panel in the retracted position required by the dynamics of Orbiter/Mir docking. The Kvant 2 airlock module appears parallel to the Orbiter crew module, while the Spektr module is at the nadir and is hidden from view by the port solar panel of the Mir Base Block. The Kvant module is shown at the aft of the Mir Base Block with the solar panels of the Kristall module installed and fully extended. The Soyuz TM transport vehicle used for the launch and docking of the Mir Expedition 18 crew is docked to Kvant.
Hubble Space Telescope
The Hubble Space Telescope hovers at the boundary of Earth and space in this picture, taken after Hubble's second servicing mission in 1997. Hubble drifts 353 miles (569 km) above the Earth's surface, where it can avoid the atmosphere and clearly see objects in space
Seated (left to right) are Steven W. Lindsey, pilot; and Curtis L. Brown, commander. Standing (left to right) are Scott E. Parazynski, mission specialist; Stephen K. Robinson, mission specialist; Chiaki Mukai (NASDA), payload specialist; Pedro Duque (ESA), mission specialist; and John H. Glenn, payload specialist. Glenn was a U.S. Senator and the first American to orbit the Earth in Friendship 7 in February of 1962. The seven launched into Earth orbit aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on October 29, 1998 at 2:19:34 pm (EST). The primary payload was SPACEHAB, in which many experiments were carried out.
The Soyuz TMA-3 spacecraft and its booster rocket (front view) is shown on a rail car for transport to the launch pad where it was raised to a vertical launch position at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on October 16, 2003. Liftoff occurred on October 18th, transporting a three man crew to the International Space Station (ISS): Michael Foale, Alexander Kaleri and European Space agency (ESA) Astronaut Pedro Duque
The Earth: A Beautiful Picture obtained thanks to Artificial Satellites
The Future: NASA's Constellation Program